**The WAEC syllabus for physics (SSCE & GCE) 2023/2024 is out. Candidates that want to write the May/June examination needs to see this Physics syllabus and know the areas of concentration.**

Read down to find out more about the WAEC syllabus for Physics 2023

**WAEC Syllabus for Physics 2023/2024 Theory & Practicals PDF Download**

Waec Syllabus is a must-have tool both before and during your WAEC examination. It is a guide to what you will be studying.

To know your area of concentration, you have to follow this guide carefully. Also, you can download the PDF here

**Aims and objectives**

The syllabus aims to enable candidates to:

(1) acquire a proper understanding of the basic principles and applications of Physics

(2) develop scientific skills and attitudes as prerequisites for further scientific activities

(3) recognize the usefulness and limitations of the scientific method in order to appreciate its applicability in other disciplines and in everyday life

(4) develop abilities, attitudes, and skills that encourage efficient and safe practice

(5) develop scientific skills and attitudes.

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**Scheme of Examination (WAEC syllabus for physics 2023)**

The following will take place during the examination:

There will be **three** papers, **Papers 1, 2,** and **3**, all of which must be taken. **Papers 1** and **2 **will be composite papers to be taken in one sitting.**PAPER 1**: Will consist of fifty multiple-choice questions lasting 1¼ hours and carrying

50 marks.

**PAPER 2**: Will consist of two sections, Sections A and B lasting 1½ hours and carrying 60 marks.**Section A** – Will comprise seven short-structured questions. Candidates will be required to answer any five questions for a total of 15 marks.

**Section B** – Will comprise five essay questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any three for 45 marks. WAEC Syllabus –

**PAPER 3**: Will be a practical test for school candidates or an alternative to a practical work paper for private candidates.

Each version of the paper will comprise three questions out of which candidates will be required to answer any two in 2¾ hours for 50 marks.

Take note of the following areas

**Part 1: ****Interaction of Matter, Space, and Time**

1. Concepts of matter

2. Fundamental and derived quantities and units

- Fundamental quantities and units
- Derived quantities and units

3. Position, distance, and displacement.

- Concept of position as a location of point-rectangular coordinates.
- Measurement of distance and simple structure of matter should be discussed.
- Concept of direction as a way of locating a point–bearing

4. The distinction between distance and displacement.

- micrometer screw gauge.
- The degree of accuracy should be noted.
- Metre (m) is a unit of distance.
- Use of a compass and a protractor.
- Graphical location and directions by axes to be stressed.
- Mass and weight

5. Time

- Concept of time as an interval between physical events
- Measurement of time

6. Fluid at rest

- Volume, density, and relative density
- Pressure in fluids
- Equilibrium of bodies
- Archimedes’ principle
- Law of flotation

6. Motion

- Types of motion: Random, rectilinear, translational, Rotational, circular, orbital, spin, Oscillatory.
- Relative motion
- Cause of motion
- Types of force:
- Contact force
- Non-contact force(field force)
- Solid friction viscosity (friction in fluids)
- Simple ideas of circular motion. Only qualitative treatment is required.

7. Speed and velocity

- Concept of speed as a change of distance with time
- Concept of velocity as a change of displacement with time
- Uniform/non-uniform speed/velocity
- Distance/displacement-time graph

8. Rectilinear acceleration

- Concept of Acceleration/deceleration as increase/decrease in velocity with time.
- Uniform/non-uniform acceleration
- Velocity-time graph
- Equations of motion with constant acceleration; Motion under gravity as a special case.
- show the difference between angular speed and velocity.
- Draw a diagram to illustrate centripetal force.
- The banking of roads in reducing sideways friction should be qualitatively discussed. Meter per second (ms-1) as a unit of speed/velocity. Ticker-timer or similar devices should be used to determine speed/velocity. Definition of velocity as ∆ s ∆t).

8. Scalars and vectors

- Concept of scalars as physical quantities with magnitude and no direction
- Concept of vectors as physical quantities with both magnitude and direction.
- Vector representation
- Addition of vectors
- Resolution of vectors
- Resultant velocity using vector representation.

9. Equilibrium of forces

- Principle of moments
- Conditions for the equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non-parallel forces.
- Centre of gravity and stability

10. Simple harmonic motion

- Illustration, explanation, and definition of simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) Mass, distance, speed, and time as examples of scalars.
- Speed and acceleration of S.H.M.
- Period, frequency, and amplitude of a body executing S.H.M.
- Energy of S.H.M
- Forced vibration and resonance

11. Newton’s laws of motion:

- First Law: Inertia of rest and inertia of motion
- Second Law: Force, acceleration, momentum, and impulse
- Third Law: Action and reaction (Relate linear and angular speeds, linear and angular

accelerations).

**Part II: Energy**** (Mechanical and Heat)**

1. Energy:

- Forms of energy
- World energy resources
- Conservation of energy.

2. Work, Energy, and Power

- Concept of work as a measure of energy transfer
- Concept of energy as the capability to do work
- Work done in a gravitational field.
- Types of mechanical energy
- Potential energy (P.E.)
- Kinetic energy (K.E)
- Conservation of mechanical energy.
- The concept of power is the time rate of doing work.
- Application of mechanical energy- machines. (Levers, pulleys, inclined plane, wedge, screw, wheel and axle, gears).

3. Heat Energy

- Temperature and its measurement
- Effects of heat on matter e.g
- Rise in temperature
- Change of phase state
- Expansion
- Change of resistance
- Thermal expansion – Linear, area and volume expansivities (Unit of power as the watt (W))
- Heat transfer – Condition, convention and radiation.
- The gas laws-Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, pressure law and general gas law
- Measurement of heat energy:
- Concept of heat capacity
- Specific heat capacity.
- Latent heat
- Concept of latent heat
- Melting point and boiling Point
- Specific latent heat of fusion and of vaporization Per Kelvin (K-1) as the unit of expansivity.
- Evaporation and boiling
- Vapor and vapour pressure
- Humidity, relative humidity and dew point
- Humidity and the weather

**Part III: ****Waves**

1. Production and propagation of waves

- Production and propagation of mechanical waves
- Pulsating system: Energy transmitted with definite speed, frequency and wavelength.
- Waveform
- Mathematical relationship connecting frequency
- wavelength(), period (T) and velocity (v)

2. Types of waves

- Transverse and longitudinal
- Mathematical representation of Use of ropes and springs (slinky) to generate mechanical waves

3. Properties of waves: Reflection, refraction, diffraction, Interference, superposition of progressive waves producing standing stationary waves

4. Light waves

Sources of light (Ripple tank should be extensively used to demonstrate these properties with plane and circular waves). Explanation of the properties. Natural and artificial. Luminous and non-luminous bodies.

- Rectilinear propagation of light
- Reflection of light at plane surface: plane mirror
- Reflection of light at curved surfaces: concave and convex mirrors
- Refraction of light at plane surfaces: rectangular glass prism (block) and triangular prism.
- Refraction of light at curved Formation of shadows and eclipse. Pinhole camera. Simple numerical problems may be set.
- Application of lenses in optical instruments.
- Dispersion of white light by a triangular glass prism.

5. Electromagnetic waves: Types of radiation in the electromagnetic Spectrum

6. Sound Waves

- Sources of sound
- Transmission of sound waves
- Speed of sound in solid, liquid, and (derivation of the formulae not required).
- Echoes and reverberation
- Noise and music
- Characteristics of sound on temperature and pressure to be considered.
- Vibration in strings
- Forced vibration
- Resonance
- Harmonies and overtones
- The vibration of air in the pipe – open and closed pipes

**Part IV: ****Fields**

1. Description of property of fields.

- Concept of fields: Gravitational, electric and Magnetic
- Properties of a force field

2. Gravitational field

- Acceleration due to gravity, (g)
- The gravitational force between two masses: Newton’s law of gravitation
- Gravitational potential and escape velocity.

3. Electric Field

- Electrostatics
- Production of electric charges
- Types of distribution of charges
- Storage of charges
- Electric lines of force
- The electric force between point
- charges: Coulomb’s law
- Concepts of electric field, electric field intensity (potential gradient), and electric potential.

4. Capacitance- Definition, arrangement, and application of Current electricity

Production of electric current from primary and secondary cells

Potential difference and electric

current

Electric circuit

Electric conduction through

materials

Electric energy and power

Shunt and multiplier

Resistivity and Conductivity

Measurement of electric current, potential difference, resistance, e.m.f. and internal resistance of a cell.

5. Magnetic field

- Properties of magnets and magnetic materials.
- Magnetization and demagnetization.
- Concept of magnetic field
- Magnetic force on:
- a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field;
- between two parallel current-carrying conductors
- Use of electromagnets
- The Earth’s magnetic field
- Magnetic force on a moving charged particle

6. Electromagnetic field

Concept of electromagnetic field

7. Magnetic field

- Properties of magnets and magnetic materials.
- Magnetization and demagnetization.
- Concept of magnetic field magnetic force on:
- a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field;
- between two parallel current-carrying conductors
- Use of electromagnets
- The Earth’s magnetic field
- Magnetic force on a moving charged particle

8. Electromagnetic field

- Concept of electromagnetic field
- Electromagnetic induction Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, and motor-generator effect
- Inductance
- Eddy currents
- Power transmission and distribution

9. Simple a.c. circuits

- Graphical representation of e.m.f and current in an a.c. circuit.
- Peak and r..m.s. values
- A series circuit containing a resistor, inductor, and capacitor
- Reactance and impedance
- Vector diagrams
- Resonance in an a.c, circuit
- Power in an a.c. circuit.

**Frequently Asked Questions**

Here are the frequently asked questions about the WAEC syllabus for physics 2023/2024

**1. Is the WAEC Syllabus for Physics 2023 out?**

Yes, the WAEC syllabus for Physics 2023 is out and available for download.

**2. Where can I Download the WAEC Syllabus for Physics 2023?**

you can download the WAEC syllabus for Physics 2023 by following this site.

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