The WAEC syllabus for biology 2022/2023 practical & theory is now available. Candidates that are preparing for the WAEC May/June examination should read this article(WAEC syllabus for biology 2022) as a guide in order to know their area of concentration.  

WAEC Syllabus for Biology 2022


Read down to find out more relevant guides for the WAEC examination.

WAEC syllabus for biology practical/theory 2022/2023 PDF download.

Download PDF Here

Note the key points that will help you prepare ahead of the exams.

Here is the official Waec syllabus for biology 2022/2023. make sure you go through the waec syllabus for biology carefully below.

This is an examination syllabus drawn up from the curricula of the member countries of the West African Examinations Council.

It should be used alongside the appropriate teaching syllabus(es) of the country where the candidates are domiciled.
This examination syllabus is divided into three sections: Sections A, B, and C.

Section A is for all candidates, Section B is for candidates in Ghana only and Section C is for candidates in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, and Liberia.



  1. This syllabus is intended to evaluate candidates on the following criteria:
    Appreciation of nature and knowledge of the structure and activities of living organisms;
  2. Acquiring adequate laboratory and field skills in order to conduct and evaluate biological experiments and projects;
  3. Acquiring necessary scientific skills, such as observing, classifying, and interpreting biological data;
  4. Acquiring the fundamental relevant knowledge in Biology required for future advanced studies in biological sciences
  5. Development of scientific problem-solving attitudes;
  6. Ability to use biological concepts in everyday life in topics affecting personal, social, environmental, community health, and economic problems;
  7. Understanding of interrelationships between biology and other scientific disciplines.


There will be three papers: Papers 1, 2, and 3, all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1: Will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions drawn from Section A of the syllabus (the section of the syllabus which is common to all countries). It will carry 50 marks and last for 50

PAPER 2: Will consist of six essay questions drawn from the entire syllabus.
The paper will be put into three sections, Sections A, B, and C.

Section A: Will consist of four examination drawn from Section A of
the syllabus.

Section B: This Will be for candidates in Ghana only and will be drawn
from Section B of the syllabus (ie the section of the syllabus
perculiar to Ghana). It will consist of short-structured questions.

Section C: Will be for candidates in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, The
Gambia and Liberia and will be drawn from Section C of the
syllabus (ie the section of the syllabus containing material for those
countries only).


This section is for all candidates and is the area of concentration for the WAEC Syllabus for Biology 2022

Topic 1

(a) Major phyla of Kingdom Protoctista include: Rhizopoda, Zoomastigina, Apicomplexa, Ciliophora, Euglenophyta, Oomycota, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta, and Phaeophyta.
Kingdom Fungi (Eukaryotes), mainly non-motile organisms composed of hyphae containing nuclei e.g. moulds, mushrooms, and Rhizopus.

(b) Major phyla of Kingdom Fungi include: Lycopodophyta, Filicinophyta, Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta and Angiospermophyta (Monocotyledoneae)

(c) Differences between plants and animals.

Topic 2

Organization of life
(a) Levels of organization
(i) cell (single-celled organisms): Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium
(ii) Tissue: Hydra
(iii) Organ (storage organ) bulb, rhizome and heart.
(iv) System/Organ System: In mammals, flowering plants –
reproductive system, excretory system etc.
(b) Complexity of organization in higher organisms: advantages and

Topic 3

Forms in which living cells exist:
(a) Single and free-living: Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, and Chlamydomonas Dicotyledoneae).
Kingdom Animalia (Eukaryotes), multicellular motile organisms that feed on other organisms e.g. corals, worms, insects, snails, fishes, frogs, snakes, monkeys cows.

(b) Characteristics of the major phyla and classes of Kingdom Animalia.
The external features of the following organisms should be mentioned: cockroach, butterfly, Tilapia, toad/frog, lizard, fowl/pigeon.

(c) The examples should be used to illustrate differentiation and specialization in organisms.
The significance of different levels of organization including volume/surface area ratio should be mentioned.

(d) The structure of these organisms in relation to the forms of existence should be studied to illustrate dependence and interdependence.

  1. Colony: Volvox
  2. Filament: Spirogyra
  3. Part of a living organism: Cheek cells, onion root tip cells and epidermis of fleshy leaves.

Topic 4

(a) Cell structure and functions of cell components.
(b) Similarities and differences between plant and animal cells.

Topic 5

The Cell and its environment: Physical and Biophysical processes.
(a) diffusion
(b) osmosis
(c) active transport

Topic 6

Properties and functions of the living cell
(a) Nutrition
(i) Autotrophic
(ii) Heterotrophic (holozoic)
(b) Cellular respiration
Definition and processes of:
(i) aerobic respiration
(ii) anaerobic respiration
(iii) energy release

Topic 7

Distinguish groups of cells that form tissues from those that form colonies or filaments. Cell structure should include Cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic organelles: mitochondria, lysosomes, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, centrosomes, Golgi bodies, and chromosomes.

The function performed by organelles should be known.

The significance of these processes should be mentioned as factors that affect cell activities in its environment.
Haemolysis, plasmolysis, turgidity and crenation should be mentioned.
These should be mentioned as processes occurring within living cells.

Nutrition in Euglena, Chlamydomonas and Spirogyra should be mentioned. Nutrition in Amoeba and Paramecium should be mentioned.

A simplified outline of the chemical processes involved in glycolysis and Kreb’s cycle; Reference should be made to the role of ATP.

The importance of anaerobic respiration in food processing should be mentioned.
(c) Excretion
(i) Excretion in single-celled aquatic
organisms. Diffusion by body surface and by the contractile vacuole.
(ii) Waste products of metabolism.
(d) Growth
(i) Basis of growth – cell division (mitosis), enlargement and
(ii) Aspects of growth:
Increase in dry weight, irreversible increase in size and length and increase in number of cells.
(iii) Regions of the fastest growth in plants.
(iv) Influence of growth hormones and auxins.
(v) Growth curvatures (Tropisms)
(e) Development: Enlargement and differentiation.
(f) Movement
(i) Organelles for movement: cilia and flagella,
(ii) Cyclosis.

Topic 8

Types of reproduction.
Reference should be made to carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia as examples of waste products.
Observation of root tip and shoot tip are required. Regulation of growth by hormones should be mentioned.
Types of tropisms should be demonstrated.
Microscopic examination of the different regions of growth and development: region of cell division, elongation, differentiation, and maturation. Processes that result in primary and secondary growth.(i) Asexual: fission, budding and vegetative propagation.
(ii) Sexual: Conjugation, formation of male and female gametes
(gametogenesis), fusion of gametes fertilization)

Topic 9

(a) Tissues and supporting systems: Skeleton and supporting systems in animals:
(i) Biological significance.
(ii) Skeletal materials, e.g. bone,
cartilage and chitin.
(iii) Types of skeleton: exoskeleton, endoskeleton and hydrostatic skeleton.
(iv) Bones of the vertebral column, girdles and long bones of the appendicular skeleton.
(v) Mechanism of support in animals.
(vi) Functions of skeleton in animals: Protection, support, locomotion and respiratory movement.
(b) Different types of supporting tissues in plants.
(i) Main features of supporting tissues in plants.
(ii) Functions of supporting tissues in plants: strength, rigidity (resistance against the forces of the wind and water), flexibility and resilience.
Prepared slides of:
(a) fission in Paramecium
(b) budding in yeast and Chlamydomonas; should be observed and drawn.
Prepared slides of conjugation in Paramecium and Spirogyra should be studied. The process of meiosis should be mentioned.
The location and arrangement of skeletal and supporting tissues in animals should be mentioned.

Moreso, Candidates should be familiar with the general plan of the mammalian skeleton and different types of joints.

They should be able to identify, draw, label and state the functions of the individual bones listed in the content column.

A detailed structure of the skull will not be required. Histological structure of bones and cartilages will also not be required.

Candidates should be able to explain how these functions are performed.

The relationship of skeleton and muscles during movement should be used to illustrate the different functions of the skeleton.

The different types of supporting tissues: turgid parenchyma, collenchyma, xylem (wood) sclerenchyma should be studied.
Candidates should be able to cut and draw the low power of the T.S. of stem and root of a herbaceous plant and label the different tissues;
epidermis, cortex and stele.

FAQS about waec syllabus for biology 2022

let us help you with the frequently asked questions about waec syllabus for biology 2022

is the waec syllabus for biology 2022/2023 out?

yes, the waec syllabus for biology 2022/2023 is out and ready for download.

how do I know the topics i should concentrate on?

the topics you should concentrate on while prepreparing for your waec biology examination 2022 is in the middle of this article.

how do i prepare for my waec biology exams

to prepare for your waec biology exams, you have to read the waec syllabus for biology 2022 in order to guide you on the major keypoints and area of concentration.

Should you have concerns regarding the waec syllabus for biology 2022 for students in SS3, Feel free to contact us using the comment box provided below and we’ll respond promptly.







Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.